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Table 3 Mixed-effects model results showing the relationship between emergency department Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and marginal mean of echocardiography parameters

From: Increasing illness severity is associated with global myocardial dysfunction in the first 24 hours of sepsis admission

  ED SOFA score
Parameter estimate 95% CI Percent residual variation not explained by within-subject effects Number of observations included (%)
Echocardiography measure     
 LVEF (%) − 1.84 − 2.88 to − 0.80 59.5 185 (84)
 TAPSE (mm) − 0.72 − 1.2 to − 0.50 39.6 103 (47)
 GLS (%) 0.30 − 0.01 to 0.61 84.3 85 (39)
 Lateral e′(cm) − 0.04 − 0.1 to − 0.02 31.2 147 (67)
 Septal e′ (cm) − 0.04 − 0.05 to − 0.01 53.0 149 (68)
 Average e′ (cm) − 0.04 − 0.10 to − 0.01 52.2 139 (63)
 Lateral E/e′ 0.98 0.29 to 1.67 71.3 126 (58)
 Septal E/e′ 1.28 0.44 to 2.11 73.1 126 (58)
 Average E/e′ 1.13 0.37 to 1.88 75.0 126 (58)
  1. Each row represents a single linear mixed-effects model with the outcome being repeated measures (at 0, 3 and 24 h) of the cardiac function parameters listed in column 1 and the parameter estimate for ED SOFA score (covariate parameter estimates not shown)
  2. LVEF left-ventricular ejection fraction; TAPSE tricuspid annular plan systolic excursion; GLS global longitudinal strain; e′ mitral annular velocity; E/e trans-mitral inflow velocity/mitral annular velocity ratio