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Table 2 Ultrasound signs for reversible causes

From: Point-of-care ultrasound in cardiorespiratory arrest (POCUS-CA): narrative review article

  View Arrest signs Peri-Arrest signs
Cardiac Tamponade Subxiphoid View Apical 4 chambers
Subcostal IVC
Parasternal Long View*
Pericardial effusion
Plethoric IVC
Pericardial effusion
Plethoric IVC
Systolic collapse of the right atrium
Collapse of the right ventricle in diastole
Hypovolemia Subxiphoid View
Apical 4 chambers
Subcostal IVC
Parasternal views*
Obliteration of ventricles
Inferior vena cava diameter < 2 cm
Hyperdynamic
Obliteration of ventricles
Kiss sign
"Empty tank" inferior vena cava (IVC diameter < 2 cm collapse > 50% during inspiration)
Pulmonary Embolism Subxiphoid View
Apical 4 chambers
Subcostal IVC
Parasternal views*
Lower limb compression ultrasound*
Right heart thrombus
Right ventricular dilation
D sign of left ventricle
Deep vein thrombosis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Deep vein thrombosis
Paradoxical septal systolic movement
Septal flattening in diastole
McConnell sign
D sign of left ventricle
Tension pneumothorax 4th–5th intercostal space with midclavicular line Absence lung sliding (during artificial ventilation)
Stratosphere /barcode sign
Absence lung sliding
Stratosphere /barcode sign
Absence B lines
Absence pulmonary pulse
Lung point
  1. *Optional