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Table 3 Diagnostic performance of physical examination and lung ultrasound for detection of pleural effusion

From: Comparing accuracy of bedside ultrasound examination with physical examination for detection of pleural effusion

  Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI) Positive likelihood ratio (95% CI) Negative likelihood ratio (95% CI) Accuracy (95% CI)
Overall physical examination 44.0% (30.0–58.8%) 88.9% (65.3–98.6%) 3.96 (1.03–15.18) 0.63 (0.47–0.85) 55.9% (44.3–67.9%)
Individual physical examination findings
 Decreased tactile fremitus 68.0% (53.3–80.5%) 83.3% (58.6–96.2%) 4.08 (1.43–11.7) 0.38 (0.24–0.60) 72.1% (59–9-82.3%)
 Dullness to percussion 94.0% (83.5–98.8%) 16.7% (3.6–41.4%) 1.13 (0.91–1.40) 0.36 (0.08–1.62) 73.5% (61.4–83.5%)
 Asymmetric chest wall expansion 18% (8.6–31.4%) 94.4% (72.7–99.9%) 3.24 (0.44–23.81) 0.87 (0.73–1.03) 38.2% (26.7–50.8%)
 Egophony 38.8% (25.2–53.8%) 88.9 (65.3–98.6%) 3.49 (0.90–13.50) 0.69 (0.52–0.91) 52.2% (39.7–64.6%)
Bedside ultrasound examination
 Seated (posterior exam) 92% (80.8–97.8%) 94.4% (72.7–99.9%) 16.6 (2.5–111.4) 0.08 (0.03–0.22) 92.7% (83.7–97.6%)
 Supine (coronal views) 98% (89.4–100%) 94.4 (72.7–99.9%) 17.6 (2.6–118.6) 0.02 (0.00–0.15) 97.1% (89.8–99.6%)
  1. Diagnostic parameters and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of physical examination and sonographic findings for pleural effusion