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Table 2 Factors related to the portfolio of ultrasound services available

From: Results from a Spanish national survey on the application of ultrasound in pulmonology services

SERVICES PORTFOLIO Total N = 104 High-complexity centre N = 58 Intermediate-complexity centre N = 30 Low-complexity centre N = 16
LUS is routinely used to diagnose and manage PLEURAL EFFUSION 95/104 (91.3%) 55/58 (94.8%) 27/30 (89.9%) 13/16 (81.2%)
LUS is routinely used to diagnose and/or follow-up INTERSTITIAL PULMONARY DISEASES 16/104 (15.3%) 10/58 (17.2%) 1/30 (3.3%)b 5/16 (31.2%)
LUS is routinely used to rule out IATROGENIC PNEUMOTORAX after bronchopleural procedures 53/104 (50.9%) 36/58 (62.0%) 10/30 (33.3%) 7/16 (43.7%)
LUS is routinely used for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of PNEUMONIA 32/104 (30.7%) 19/58 (32.7%) 7/30 (23.3%) 6/16 (37.5)
LUS is routinely used to guide PULMONARY RECRUITMENT MANEUVERS 6/104 (5.9%) 5/58 (8.6%) 0 (0%) 1/16 (6.25%)
LUS is routinely used to resolve DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES between different pulmonary pathologies 54/104 (51.9%) 32/58 (55.1%) 15/30 (49.9%) 7/16 (43.7%)
LUS is routinely used to assess VOCAL CORD DYSFUNCTION 4/104 (3.8%) 2/58 (3.4%) 1/30 (3.3%) 1/16 (6.25%)
LUS is routinely used to diagnose and follow-up patients with COVID-19 29/104 (27.8%) 18/58 (31.0%) 6/30 (20%) 5/16 (31.2%)
ECOSCOPY is used for LVEF estimation, to measure cavities, for pericardial assessment, and to calculate the TAPSE 25/104 (24.0%) 15/58 (25.8%) 6/30 (20%) 4/16 (25%)
LL ultrasound is routinely performed when thromboembolic disease is suspected 28/104 (26.9%) 12/58 (20.6%)a 7/30 (23.3%)b 9/16 (56.2%)
ELASTOGRAPHY is used to assess masses 8/104 (7.6%) 7/58 (12.1%) 0 (0%) 1/16 (6.2%)
ELASTOGRAPHY is used to assess pleural effusions 6/104 (5.7%) 4/58 (6.8%) 1/30 (3.3%) 1/16 (6.2%)
  1. LL lower limb, COVID-19 coronavirus SARS-CoV2, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursión
  2. ap < 0.05 high-complexity compared to low-complexity centres
  3. bp < 0.05 intermediate-complexity compared to low-complexity centres