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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: Reliability of ultrasound versus digital vaginal examination in detecting cervical dilatation during labor: a diagnostic test accuracy systematic review

Study Location Study type Sample size Parity Age median (range)/mean ± SD Gestational age (weeks): median (range)/mean ± SD BMI: kg/m2 median (range)/mean (SD) Single or multiple Presentation Intervention Control
Nulliparous Multi
Cuerva et al. [25] Spain Prospective cohort 57 31.5% 68.5% 31.6 ± 6.3 39.2 ± 0.9 24.3 ± 5.4 Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Kim et al. [7] South Korea Prospective cohort 25 72% 28% 32 (18–38) 38.4 (32.8 -40.8) Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Wiafe et al. [3] Republic of Ghana Prospective cohort 195 Nulli Primi 31% 27 Mean 39 ± 4 28 (20–42) Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
47% 22%
Wilkinson et al. [24] UK Prospective cohort 195 93% 7% 31 (18–44) 40 (24–42) 24.1 (15.7–42.4) Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Dimassi et al. [26] Tunisia Prospective cohort 60     Not mention Not mention Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Yuce et al. [28] Turkey Prospective cohort 43 58% 42%     Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Benediktsdotti et al. [27] Sweden Prospective cohort 86 Median (range): 1 (0–5) 30.5 (23–43) 40 (36–42) 24.3 (18–36) Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Hassan et al. [12] UK Prospective cohort 52 Median(range): 0 (0–2) 34 (21–41) 40 (37–41) 29 (22–47) Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Hassan et al. [13] UK Prospective cohort 40 100% Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mention Singleton Cephalic TPUS DVE
Zimerman et al. [15] Israel Prospective cohort 52 43% 57% 29.8 ± 4.23 39.7 ± 1.32   Singleton Cephalic TLUS DVE
  1. Primi primigravida, Multi multigravida, y years, MI body mass index, TPUS trans-perineal ultrasound, TLUS trans-labial ultrasound, DVE digital vaginal examination