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Table 2 Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and kappa statistics associated with lung ultrasound findings compared to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing

From: Diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for SARS-CoV-2: a retrospective cohort study

  Sensitivity Specificity NPV PPV Kappa
All ultrasounds, N = 174
 Ultrasound SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis 86.0 71.6 81.7 77.7 0.58
 Multiple field involvement 83.9 66.7 78.3 74.3 0.51
 Posterior field involvement 71.0 70.4 67.9 73.3 0.41
 Bilateral lung involvement 78.5 74.1 75.0 77.7 0.53
 Bilateral posterior field involvement 57.0 91.4 64.9 88.3 0.47
 Any discrete B-lines 86.0 54.3 77.2 68.4 0.41
 Any confluent B-lines 43.0 98.8 60.2 97.6 0.40
 Any pleural thickening or irregularity 86.0 51.9 76.4 67.2 0.39
 No pathologic lung findings 11.8 48.1 32.2 20.8 -0.39
Ultrasound SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis
 No ILD, N = 167 87.0 77.3 82.9 82.5 0.65
 No ILD, no HF EF ≤ 35%, N = 158 85.4 82.4 83.6 86.8 0.70
 No ILD, no HF EF ≤ 35%, no immunosuppression, N = 144 89.3 83.3 84.7 88.2 0.73
Complete ultrasounds, N = 174 90.9 75.6 87.2 82.0 0.67
  1. ILD interstitial lung disease, EF ejection fraction, HIV/AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ESRD end-stage renal disease