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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results, N = 174

From: Diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for SARS-CoV-2: a retrospective cohort study

  Overall RT-PCR result p value
  Negative Positive
N 174 81 93  
Age, mean (SD) 53.1 (16.8) 51.9 (19.2) 54.2 (14.3) 0.37
Male, no. (%) 92 (53%) 40 (49%) 52 (56%) 0.39
Race, no. (%)     < 0.001
 Caucasian 66 (38%) 36 (44%) 30 (32%)
 African American 33 (19%) 4 (5%) 29 (31%)
 Hispanic or Asian 75 (43%) 41 (51%) 34 (37%)
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)a 29.1 (7.2) 28.1 (7.8) 30.0 (6.6) 0.098
Number of comorbidities, no. (%) 0.013
 0 101 (58.0%) 37 (46%) 64 (69%)
 1 53 (30.5%) 30 (37%) 23 (25%)
 2 15 (8.6%) 10 (12%) 5 (5%)
 3 5 (2.9%) 4 (5%) 1 (1%)
Interventions needed, no. (%)
 High-flow nasal cannula oxygen 10 (5.7%) 1 (1%) 9 (10%) 0.017
Intubation 25 (14.4%) 5 (6%) 20 (22%) 0.004
Comorbidities, no. (%)
 Interstitial lung disease 7 (4%) 6 (7%) 1 (1%) 0.034
 Asthma 20 (12%) 8 (10%) 12 (13%) 0.53
 COPD 12 (7%) 9 (11%) 3 (3%) 0.041
 Heart failure 39 (22%) 27 (33%) 12 (13%) 0.001
  EF ≤ 35% 11 (6%) 9 (11%) 2 (2%) 0.015
 HIV/AIDS CD4 < 200 5 (3%) 4 (5%) 1 (1%) 0.13
 Immunosuppression 10 (6%) 5 (6%) 5 (5%) 0.82
ESRD 5 (3%) 3 (4%) 2 (2%) 0.54
Lung Ultrasound Score, mean (SD) 6.2(5.7) 2.6 (3.2) 9.4 (5.5) < 0.001
Positive findings by lung field, no. (%)
 L1 47 (27%) 8 (10%) 39 (42%) < 0.001
 L2 40 (23%) 9 (11%) 31 (33%) < 0.001
 L3 67 (39%) 16 (20%) 51 (55%) < 0.001
 L4 39 (22%) 10 (12%) 29 (31%) 0.003
 L5 59 (34%) 9 (11%) 50 (54%) < 0.001
 L6 55 (32%) 13 (16%) 42 (45%) < 0.001
 R1 50 (29%) 7 (9%) 43 (46%) < 0.001
 R2 56 (32%) 10 (12%) 46 (49%) < 0.001
 R3 62 (36%) 9 (11%) 53 (57%) < 0.001
 R4 31 (18%) 10 (12%) 21 (23%) 0.078
 R5 65 (37%) 8 (10%) 57 (61%) < 0.001
 R6 52 (30%) 6 (7%) 46 (49%) < 0.001
Days between symptom onset and test
 RT-PCR, median (IQR) 3 (2, 7) 3 (2, 5) 5, (3, 7) < 0.001
 POCUS, median (IQR) 6 (3, 10) 3 (2, 6) 8 (6, 14) < 0.001
Extent of lung findings, no. (%)
 No findings 53 (31%) 42 (52%) 11 (12%) < 0.001
 Single field involvement 16 (9%) 102 (15%) 4 (4%)
 Multiple unilateral field involvement 11 (6%) 6 (7%) 5 (5%)
 Bilateral field involvement 94 (54%) 21 (26%) 73 (78%)
  1. EF ejection fraction, HIV/AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ESRD end-stage renal disease, IQR interquartile range
  2. a6.9% missing