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Table 2 A scoping review of various ultrasound curricula of undergraduate medical education reported in published literature

From: Scoping review of implementing a longitudinal curriculum in undergraduate medical education: The wake forest experience

Institution Reference Duration (years) Format of information delivery Instructional method Curricular structure Mode of Integration Preclinical years Clinical years Instructors Student-to-Instructor Ratio
Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine Hendriksz, Markman, and Pera [27] 4 Hands-on sessions Not addressed Staged/ Organ-systems based Concurrently with anatomy and clinical courses Anatomy system blocks
Cardiac and blood vessel
Liver, gallbladder, and kidneys
Ocular
Fetal
FAST examination
Cardiac, vasculature, renal, lung
Small-group hands-on learning sessions
Expanded radiology
Faculty 8: 1
University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Davis
University of California, San Francisco
University of California, San Diego
University of Southern California
Stanford University
Loma Linda University
Chiem et al. [10] 4 Online materials (lectures, textbook chapters, simulated cases, and journal articles) + hands-on sessions Flipped classroom Staged/Organ-systems
based
Concurrently with anatomy and physical examination courses Ultrasound Image Acquisition of Normal Anatomy and Physiology
Basic Ultrasound Pathology
Ultrasound Identification of Pathologic Conditions
Pre-Senior Year Course
Clerkships
Peer educators Not addressed
University of California, Irvine Fox et al. [28]
Wilson et al. [29]
4 Open-access podcast lectures + hands-on sessions Not addressed Staged/Organ-system based Expanded medical program of study Knobology
Cardiovascular 1 and 2
GI Physiology
Respiratory
Musculoskeletal
Genitourinary
Head and Neck
Review/Practice
Ultrasound for Evaluation of Fever
Focused Assessment of the Thorax Exam (FATE)
Lung Ultrasound
Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Ultrasound
Cumulative Skills
Two-hour workshop for identification of pathology prior to rotations Peer educators with faculty assistance 4: 1
Wayne State University School of Medicine Rao et al. [12] 1 Didactics, hands-on experience, clinical correlation components Flipped classroom Vertical Expanded medical program of study Introduction to Ultrasound
Musculoskeletal Ultrasound
Vascular and Cardiac Ultrasound
Ultrasound of the Abdomen
Genitourinary Ultrasound
Ultrasound and Procedural Skills
Not applicable Peer educators with faculty assistance Not addressed
University of South Carolina Medical School Hoppmann et al. [4]
Hoppmann et al. [1]
4 Web-based learning modules, video assignments, hands-on lab session Not addressed Vertical Concurrently with anatomy, problem-based learning, clinical skills Anatomy
Physiology
Neuroanatomy
Problem-Based Learning
Introduction to clinical medicine: pathophysiology
Pathology
Physical diagnosis
Emergency medicine "selective"
Emergency medicine elective
Critical care "selective"
Radiology elective
Clerkships (Internal Medicine, Family Medicine, Surgery, OB-GYN, Pediatrics)
Ultrasound independent 1-month study elective
Capstone ultrasound course selective
Acting internship with ultrasound access
Faculty Not addressed
West Virginia University School of Medicine Mindari et al. [23] 4 Lectures, online videos, workshops, and practical hands-on sessions Flipped classroom Longitudinal Concurrently as a "thread" with anatomy, basic science lectures, and physical examination courses Human Structures (6 modules, including introduction to ultrasound)
Microbiology and Immunology
Pathology
Pharmacology
Physical
Diagnosis/Clinical
Integration
Clerkships (OB-GYN, Surgery, Internal Medicine, Family Medicine, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Anesthesia, Critical Care)
Emergency and Critical Ultrasound Elective
Radiology Elective
Faculty 2: 1
Ohio State University College of Medicine Bahner et al. [11]
Bahner and Royall [7]
4 Lectures + hands-on sessions Not addressed Vertical + longitudinal Concurrently with anatomy and clinical reasoning course Musculoskeletal Anatomy Ultrasound
Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis Anatomy Ultrasound
Head and Neck Anatomy Ultrasound
Introduction to Focused Ultrasound Elective
Basic Course in Focused Ultrasound Protocols Elective
Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access
Specialty-Based Hands-On Ultrasound Experience
Core Focused Ultrasound Protocols
Emergency Focused Ultrasound
Specialty-Based Hands-On Ultrasound Experience
Faculty Not addressed
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Nelson et al. [30] 1 Lectures, demonstration, hands-on session Not addressed Staged/Organ-systems based Concurrently with gross anatomy and physical examination courses Basic ultrasound physics and instrumentation
Focused cardiac ultrasound
Focused thoracic ultrasound
Focused abdominal ultrasound
Not applicable Faculty + senior residents Not addressed
University of Sydney Medical School Moscova et al. [31] 1 Hands-on sessions Not addressed Longitudinal Incorporated into second year practical sessions Imaging of abdomen, pelvis, and vascular ultrasounds Note applicable Specialists Not addressed
A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine Kondrashova and Lockwood [32]
and
Kondrashova [33]
2 Video modules, hands-on sessions, and clinical correlation components Flipped classroom Staged/Organ-systems based Integrated into gross anatomy and new Clinical Ultrasound Elective Introduction to US
Neck
Upper Limb Musculoskeletal Abdomen
Gastrointestinal
Pelvis
Urinary system
Lower Extremities
Ocular Ultrasound
Echocardiography
Vascular & Extremities
Clinical Ultrasound Elective
Not applicable Not addressed Not addressed
Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine Russ et al. [36] 4 Video modules, hands-on sessions, and clinical correlation components Flipped classroom Vertical Integrated into gross anatomy and Principles of Clinical Courses Ultrasound Physics and Introduction
Musculoskeletal Parts I & II
Cardiac Ultrasound
Thoracic and Pulmonary Ultrasound
Abdominal Ultrasound
Head and Neck Ultrasound
Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Focused Abdominal Sonography in Trauma Ultrasound
Abdominal Ultrasound
Musculoskeletal Ultrasound
Resuscitative Ultrasound
Ultrasonography and Procedure course
Clinical Ultrasonography Rotation
Faculty + Peers Not addressed
Harvard Medical School Rempell et al. [15] 2 Lectures, case-based examples, hands-on sessions Not addressed Staged/organ-systems based Integrated into gross anatomy and physical diagnosis course Anatomy lab curriculum
Ultrasound Selectives
Not applicable Faculty 4: 1
Florida State University College of Medicine* Not applicable 3 Large-group sessions/lectures, small group, and clinical learning center cases Not addressed Organ-systems Based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty  
University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville* Not applicable 4 Online lectures + hands-on sessions Flipped classroom Organ-systems Based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty 5–7: 1
Bangladesh Institute of Health Technology* Not available 2 Lectures, hands-on sessions, observation scanning sessions, field-hospital visits, case presentation Not addressed Organ-systems Based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Sonologist
4: 1
College of Medicine – University of Sharjah* Not applicable 5 Lectures + hands-on sessions Not addressed Problem-based learning Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty 10: 1
University of Limerick* Not applicable 2 Hands-on annual sessions Not addressed Problem-based learning Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Sonographers
Visiting POCUS instructors
4–5: 1
Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine* Not available 4 Lectures, hands-on sessions, independent scanning Not addressed Other/multi-track Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Peer educators
Sonographers
30: 1
University of Texas Health Science Center – San Antonio* Not applicable 4 Didactics + hands-on sessions Not addressed Discipline based Integrated with Clinical Ultrasound Education, clinical rotations, and specialty electives Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Peer educators
Fellows and Residents
Variable
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine* Not applicable 4 Hands-on workshops and sessions Not addressed Organ-systems based Not addressed Hands-on ultrasound workshops during the first two years, SonoSim ultrasound session (knobology and lung) Optional hands-on sessions for students going into surgical specialties Faculty 3–5: 1
UNC School of Medicine – Carolinas Medical Center* Lewis et al. [37] 1 Lectures + hands-on sessions Not addressed Organ-systems based Not addressed Not applicable Imaging, Acquisition & Orientation
The Cardiopulmonary Patient, The Acute Abdomen I, The Acute Abdomen II, The Pregnant Patient, Procedural Guidance, Ultrasound course wrap-up
Clerkships
Faculty
Residents
4: 1
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School* Not applicable 4 Lectures, online lectures, hands-on sessions Not addressed Organ-systems based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Emergency medicine residents
5: 1
Virginia Commonwealth University* Not applicable 4 Online lectures + hands-on sessions Not addressed Organ-systems based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Peer educators 7–8:1
University of California Riverside School of Medicine* Not applicable 4 Didactics + hands-on sessions Not addressed Student-driven Integrated with gross anatomy and clinical skills courses Gross Anatomy modules
Clinical Skills with Point-of-Care Selective
Point-of-care ultrasound sessions Faculty
Peer educators
3: 1
Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine* Not applicable 4 Didactics, hands-on sessions, podcasts Not addressed Organ-systems based Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed Sonographers 20:1
Texas A&M University* (Texas A&M University, AY 2016–2017) 2 SonoSim, hands-on with SP and ultrasound machine Not addressed Longitudinal elective Ran parallel to clerkships Not applicable Fundamentals of Ultrasound
Clerkship modules (General Surgery, Emergency Medicine, Critical Care, Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and OBGYN)
Faculty
Peer educators
4–6: 1
Università di Pavia* Not applicable 6 General lectures + small group hands-on sessions Not addressed Other/multi-track Integrated into anatomy and physiology courses Not addressed Not addressed Faculty
Peer educators
Radiology and Emergency Residents
4: 1
  1. FAST focused assessment with sonography for trauma, FATE focused assessed transthoracic echocardiography, OB-GYN obstetrics and gynecology