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Table 3 Simple and multiple regression logistics between confounder factors with outcomes

From: Relationship of spontaneous microembolic signals to risk stratification, recurrence, severity, and mortality of ischemic stroke: a prospective study

Variables Simple regression (univariate analysis) Multiple regression (multivariate analysis)
mRS 0–2 Death Recurrence mRS 0–2 Death Recurrence
n (%) P n (%) P n (%) P P OR (CI95%) P OR (IC95%) P OR (CI95%)
Sex   0.548   0.851   1.000       
 Male 44 (62.9)   11 (15.7)   3 (2.4)        
 Female 23 (56.1)   7 (17.1)   1 (4.3)        
Age (years) 0.002 0.005 0.986 0.036 0.96 (0.92–1.0) 0.014 1.07 (1.01–1.12)   
Race   0.366   0.187   1.000       
 Caucasian 52 (57.8)   17 (18.9)   4 (4.4)        
 Non-Caucasian 15 (75.7)   1 (5.0)   0        
Hypertension   0.132   0.46   1.000       
 Yes (n = 93) 59 (63.4)   13 (14.0)   4 (4.3)        
 No (n = 18) 8 (44.4)   5 (27.8)   0        
NIHSS at admission < 0.001 <0.001 0.295 0.000 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.000 1.16 (1.07–1.26)   
Prior mRS 0.014 0.876 NC 0.002 0.31 (0.14–0.66)     
Hemorrhagic transformation   0.111   0.317   1.000       
 Yes 2 (28.6)   2 (28.6)   0        
 No 65 (62.5)   16 (15.4)   4 (3.8)        
Smoking   0.002   0.158   0.623 0.054 2.83 (0.98–8.15)     
 Yes (n = 60) 44 (73.3)   7 (11.7)   3 (5.0)        
 No 23 (45.1)   11 (21.6)   1 (2.0)        
Obesity   0.680   1.000   1.000       
 Yes (n = 6) 3 (50.0)   1 (16.7)   0        
 No (n = 105) 64 (61.0)   17 (16.2)   4 (3.8)        
Diabetes   0.206   0.280   0.295       
 Yes (n = 30) 21 (70.0)   3 (18.5)   2 (6.7)        
 No (n = 81) 46 (56.8)   15 (10.0)   2 (2.5)        
Dyslipidemia   0.182   0.298   0.110       
 Yes (n = 17) 13 (76.5)   1 (5.9)   2 (11.8)        
 No (n = 94) 54 (57.4)   17 (18.1)   2 (2.1)        
Chagas disease   0.710   0.350   1.000       
 Yes (n = 8) 4 (50.0)   0   0        
 No (n = 103) 63 (61.2)   18 (17.5)   4 (3.9)        
Prior stroke   0.122   0.523   0.099       
 Yes (n = 36) 18 (50.0)   7 (19.4)   3 (8.3)        
 No (n = 75) 49 (65.3)   11 (14.7)   1 (1.3)        
Prior AMI   0.287   1.000   0.345       
 Yes (n = 11) 5 (45.5)   2 (18.2)   1 (9.1)        
 No (n = 100) 62 (62.0)   16 (16.0)   3 (3.0)        
CAD   0.879   0.687   0.057       
 Yes (n = 12) 7 (58.3)   1 (8.3)   2 (16.7)        
 No (n = 99) 60 (60.6)   17 (17.2)   2 (2.0)        
Depression   1.000   0.587   0.202       
 Yes (n = 6) 4 (60.6)   0   1 (16.7)        
 No (n = 105) 63 (50.0)   18 (17.1)   3 (2.9)        
Wake-up stroke   0.943   1.000   0.512       
 Yes (n = 18) 11 (61.1)   3 (16.7)   1 (5.6)        
 No (n = 93) 56 (60.2)   15 (16.1)   3 (3.2)        
Carotid dissection   1.000   1.000   1.000       
 Yes (n = 2) 1 (60.6)   0   0        
 No (n = 109) 66 (50.0)   18 (16.5)   4 (3.7)        
Carotid atheromatous   0.550   0.708   0.445       
 Yes (n = 15) 8 (53.3)   3 (20.0)   1 (6.7)        
 No (n = 96) 59 (61.5)   15 (15.6)   3 (3.1)        
Symptomatic carotid   0.326   1.000   0.512       
 Yes (n = 18) 9 (50.0)   3 (16.7)   1 (5.6)        
 No (n = 93) 58 (62.4)   15 (16.1)   3 (3.2)        
Intracranial stenosis   0.400   1.000   1.000       
 Yes (n = 6) 5 (83.3)   1 (16.7)   0        
 No (n = 105) 62 (59.0)   17 (16.2)   4 (3.8)        
Atrial flutter   0.648   0.512   1.000       
 Yes (n = 4) 2 (50.0)   1 (25.0)   0        
 No (n = 107) 65 (60.7)   17 (15.9)   4 (3.7)        
Atrial fibrillation   0.004   0.012   1.000       
 Yes (n = 29) 11 (37.9)   9 (31.0)   1 (3.4)        
 No (n = 82) 56 (68.3)   9 (11.0)   3 (3.7)        
Aortic arch   1.000   0.299   1.000       
 Yes (n = 2) 1 (50.0)   1 (50.0)   0        
 No (n = 109) 66 (60.6)   17 (15.6)   4 (3.7)        
Cardiac heart failure   0.155   0.299   1.000       
 Yes (n = 2) 0   1 (50.0)   0        
 No (n = 109) 67 (61.5)   17 (15.6)   4 (3.7)        
PFO   0.155   1.000   1.000       
 Yes (n = 2) 0   0   0        
 No (n = 109) 67 (61.5)   18 (16.5)   4 (3.7)        
Extracardiac shunt   0.396   0.162   1.000       
 Yes (n = 1) 0   1 (100.0)   0        
 No (n = 110) 67 (61.5)   17 (15.5)   4 (3.6)        
Thrombolysis   0.751   0.021   1.000       
 Yes (n = 26) 21 (70.0)   8 (30.8)   1 (3.8)        
 No (n = 85) 46 (56.8)   10 (11.8)   3 (3.5)        
MES          0.547    16.83 (2.01–141)
 Number of MES             
 0 62 (60%) 0.429 16 (15.5%) 0,154 2 (1.9%) 0.017       
 1 3 (100%)   0 (0%)   1 (33%)        
 3 1 (50%)   0 (0%)   1 (50%)        
 5 1 (33%)   2 (66%)   0 (0%)        
  1. NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, AMI acute myocardial infarction, CAD coronary artery disease, CHF cardiac heart failure, PFO patent foramen ovale, NC not confounder for stroke recurrence