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Table 2 Relationship between risk factors, etiology, and clinical presentation with MES presence

From: Relationship of spontaneous microembolic signals to risk stratification, recurrence, severity, and mortality of ischemic stroke: a prospective study

  MES P
n (%)  
Hypertension
 No (n = 18) 3 (17%) 0.119
 Yes (n = 93) 5 (5%)
Smoking
 No (n = 51) 4 (8%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 60) 4 (7%)
Obesity   
 No (n = 105) 7 (7%) 0.369
 Yes (n = 6) 1 (17%)
Diabetes
 No (n = 81) 6 (7%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 30) 2 (7%)
Dyslipidemia
 No (n = 94) 6 (6%) 0.354
 Yes (n = 17) 2 (12%)
Chagas disease
 No (n = 103) 7 (7%) 0.462
 Yes (n = 8) 1 (12.5%)
Prior stroke
 No (n = 75) 7 (9%) 0.271
 Yes (n = 36) 1 (3%)
Cardiac heart failure
 No (n = 103) 8 (8%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 8) 0 (0%)
Prior AMI
 No (n = 100) 8 (8%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 11) 0 (0%)
CAD
 No (n = 99) 8 (8%) 0.595
 Yes (n = 12) 0 (0%)  
Depression
 No (n = 105) 7 (6%) 0.369
 Yes (n = 6) 1 (17%)  
TOAST
 Small-vessel occlusion (n = 23) 0 (0%) <0.001
 Large-artery atherosclerosis (n = 11) 5 (46%)  
 Cardioembolism (n = 31) 0 (0%)  
 Other determined etiology (n = 5) 2 (40%)  
 Undetermined etiology (n = 41) 1 (2%)  
Ictus time < 24 h
 No (n = 67) 1 (1.5%) 0.006
 Yes (n = 44) 7 (16%)  
Wake-up stroke
 No (n = 93) 6 (7%) 0.614
 Yes (n = 18) 2 (11%)  
Carotid dissection
 No (n = 109) 7 (6%) 0.140
 Yes (n = 2) 1 (50%)  
Carotid atheromatous
 No (n = 96) 3 (3%) 0.001
 Yes (n = 15) 5 (33%)  
Symptomatic carotid
 No (n = 93) 2 (2%) <0.001
 Yes (n = 18) 6 (3%)  
Intracranial stenosis
 No (n = 105) 8 (7%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 6) 0 (0%)  
Atrial flutter
 No (n = 107) 8 (8%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 4) 0 (0%)  
Atrial fibrillation
 No (n = 82) 8 (10%) 0.108
 Yes (n = 29) 0 (0%)  
PFO
 No (n = 109) 8 (7%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 2) 0 (0%)  
Extracardiac shunt
 No (n = 110) 8 (7%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 1) 1 (100%)  
Plaques in the aortic arch
 No (n = 109) 8 (7%) 1.000
 Yes (n = 2) 0 (0%)  
  1. Fisher exact test