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Table 1 Patient characteristics separated on the presence or absence of an expert-measured cardiac output (n = 1075)

From: Feasibility of cardiac output measurements in critically ill patients by medical students

 Patients without CO measurement (n = 292)Patients with CO measurement (n = 783)p-values
Age (years)64 ± 1361 ± 150.004
Male gender190 (65%)484 (62%)0.33
BMI (kg m−2)26.9 ± 5.326.9 ± 5.60.96
Respiratory rate (bpm)18 ± 618 ± 60.88
Mechanical ventilation194 (66%)438 (56%)0.002
PEEP (cm H2O)7 (5, 8)7 (5, 8)0.83
SBP (mmHg)113 ± 25120 ± 25< 0.001
DBP (mmHg)59 ± 1260 ± 120.44
MAP (mmHg)76 ± 1479 ± 140.014
Heart rate (bpm)91 ± 2287 ± 210.002
Atrial fibrillation22 (8%)56 (7%)0.91
Norepinephrine168 (58%)361 (46%)< 0.001
CVP (mmHg)9 (4–12)9 (5–13)0.84
Lactate (mmol L−1)1.5 (1.0–2.5)1.3 (0.9–2.1)< 0.001
Consciousness
   Alert75 (26%)254 (32%)0.018
   Reacting to voice49 (17%)154 (20%) 
   Reacting to pain22 (8%)67 (9%) 
   Unresponsive146 (49%)308 (39%) 
COPD54 (18%)88 (11%)0.002
Acute surgery108 (37%)230 (29%)a0.017
Post-cardiothoracic surgery40 (14%)48 (6%)< 0.001
SAPS-II49 ± 1746 ± 170.004
APACHE IV score80 ± 3075 ± 290.017
90-day mortality80 (27%)217 (28%)0.97
  1. APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, BMI body mass index, bpm beats per minute, CO cardiac output, CVP central venous pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, SAPS simple acute physiology score, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. aSignificant overlap with cardiothoracic surgery