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Table 2 The diagnostic criteria of chest X-ray, US and CT scan to determine lung injuries in our settings

From: Value of point-of-care ultrasonography compared with computed tomography scan in detecting potential life-threatening conditions in blunt chest trauma patients

Diagnostic criteria PTX HTX Contusion
Chest X-ray A thin dense line as the visceral pleural edge separating from the parietal pleura, the distance between the 2 pleurae is radiolucent usually accumulating in the periphery and sometimes deep lucent lateral costophrenic angle In the presence of sufficient amount of blood, the involved hemithorax is hazy. If upright film is performed, the costophrenic sulcus become blunted. Alveolar infiltration, irregular patchy consolidation that usually evolve within the first 6 h
US Absence of lung sliding and the presence of stratosphere sign and the absence of B lines with or without “lung point” Dependent collection above diaphragm with or without the sinusoidal movement of collapsed lung in inspiration in the B and M mode scan, the presence of V line Three B lines in at least 2 zone scans, alveolo-interstitial syndrome (AIS), peripheral parenchymal lesions (PPL) and punctiform hyperechoic lesions without respiratory alterations
CT scan In the pulmonary window, the existence of air in pleural space that may collapse the adjacent lung Blood in the pleural space with Hounsfield Unit of about 45–65 in the mediastinal window An interstitial or alveolar lung injury, usually focal and non-segmental peripheral opacification in lung parenchyma in lower lobes
  1. PTX pneumothorax, HTX hemothorax, US ultrasonography, CT computed tomography