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Table 3 Sensitivity, specificity, positive-likelihood ratio and negative-likelihood ratio for detection of hydronephrosis with POCUS

From: Point-of-care ultrasound for the detection of hydronephrosis in emergency department patients with suspected renal colic

 TPTNFPFNSensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)+LR (95% CI)−LR (95% CI)
Hydronephrosis (mild/moderate/severe positive)a162146574877.1% (70.9, 82.6)71.8% (65.0, 77.9)2.73 (2.17, 3.48)0.31 (0.24, 0.41)
Hydronephrosis (moderate/severe positive)a851821341287.6 (79.4, 93.4)57.5 (51.8, 63.0)2.05 (1.78, 2.39)0.22 (0.13, 0.37)
Hydronephrosis (severe positive)a18193201194.7 (74.0, 99.9)48.9 (43.8, 53.9)1.85 (1.60, 2.14)0.11 (0.02, 0.73)
Hydronephrosis (with confirmed stone on formal imaging)b1362383878.2 (71.3, 84.1)74.2 (55.4, 88.1)3.03 (1.66, 5.53)0.29 (0.21, 0.42)
Hydronephrosis (patients undergoing CT scan)c145115444675.9 (69.2, 81.8)72.3 (64.7, 79.1)2.74 (2.11, 3.57)0.33 (0.25, 0.44)
  1. LR likelihood ratio, TP true positive, TN true negative, FP false positive, FN false negative)
  2. aA positive test on formal imaging was dichotomized at various cut points (mild/moderate/severe, moderate/severe, severe)
  3. bSensitivity analysis with confirmed stone on formal imaging
  4. cSenstivity analysis with the gold standard of CT scan