Skip to main content

Table 2 Multivariable proportional hazards models to predict acute kidney injury in 145 patients after cardiac surgery using the Venous EXcess UltraSound (VExUS) C grading system

From: Quantifying systemic congestion with Point-Of-Care ultrasound: development of the venous excess ultrasound grading system

 Crude hazard ratioModel 1Model 2
Adjusted hazard ratioaAdjusted hazard ratiob
HRCIpHRCIpHRCIp
VExUS C
Grade 0
Reference categoryReference categoryReference category
VExUS C
Grade 1
1.250.58–2.660.571.130.52–2.430.761.130.52–2.430.76
VExUS C
Grade 2
2.651.07–6.600.0362.310.92–5.800.0742.320.92–5.830.073
VExUS C
Grade 3
3.691.65–8.240.0012.831.22–6.550.0152.821.21–6.550.016
Pre-operative AKI risk score [30]1.021.01–1.040.0011.021.003–1.030.0191.021.003–1.0330.02
Vasopressor–inotrope score1.010.99–1.030.51   1.0010.98–1.030.93
  1. Multivariable proportional hazard regression model (Cox) with the VExUS grade considered as a time-varying covariate (i.e., VExUS grade at day 0 is used to predict AKI at day 1, VExUS grade at day 1 is used for AKI at day 2 and so on). HR hazard ratio, CI 95% confidence intervals
  2. aVariables included in the multivariate model were the VExUS C grade (segmented time-dependant) and pre-operative AKI risk score [30]
  3. bVariables included in the multivariate model were the VExUS C grade (segmented time-dependant), vasopressor–inotrope score (segmented time-dependant) and pre-operative AKI risk score [30]