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Table 2 Etiology of heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Cardiac ultrasound in resource-limited settings (CURLS): towards a wider use of basic echo applications in Africa

First author, year Patients with HF (n) Hypertension (%) Dilated cardiomyopathy (%)a Ischemic (%) Valvular (%) Right-sided HF/cor pulmonale (%) Effusion (%) Endomyocardial fibrosis (%) Congenital (%)
Ansa, 2016 339 48.6 35.4   1.4     
Appiah, 2017 1916 52.3 19.8 4 7.6     0.4
Bonsu, 2017 1488 61.2 19.9 12.9      
Boombhi, 2017 148 30.2 28.6 6.4 11.9 8.7 4   
Damasceno, 2012 1006 45.4 18.8 7.7 14.3   6.8 1.3  
Dokainish, 2017 1294 35 14.2 20 11     0.1
Kingery, 2017 588 42.8 19.3 6.2 16.6 7.6    
Kwan, 2013 192 8 54   25   1.4 0.7 5
Makubi, 2014 427 45 22.4 9 12     
Massoure, 2013 45 13 7 62      
Mwita, 2017 193 40.4 19.6 5.7 9.3   6.2   
Nkoke, 2017 529 43.2 17.6 9.6 11.7 8.8 3.8   2.1
Ogah, 2013 452 78.5 7.5 0.4 2.4 4.4 3.3 0.9 0.4
Ojji, 2013 1515 60.6 12 0.4 9.4     
Onwuchekwa, 2009 423 56.3 7.3 0.2 4.3 2.1    
Pio, 2014 297 43.1 5.9 19.2 11.8 2.7 1.7   2.7
Stewart, 2008 844 33 28 9 8 27    
  1. HF heart failure
  2. aThe majority of this group consists of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and HIV-related cardiomyopathy were mentioned in several studies, while thyrotoxicosis, alcohol and diabetes were mentioned incidentally as causes for dilated cardiomyopathy