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Table 2 Etiology of heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Cardiac ultrasound in resource-limited settings (CURLS): towards a wider use of basic echo applications in Africa

First author, year

Patients with HF (n)

Hypertension (%)

Dilated cardiomyopathy (%)a

Ischemic (%)

Valvular (%)

Right-sided HF/cor pulmonale (%)

Effusion (%)

Endomyocardial fibrosis (%)

Congenital (%)

Ansa, 2016

339

48.6

35.4

 

1.4

    

Appiah, 2017

1916

52.3

19.8

4

7.6

   

0.4

Bonsu, 2017

1488

61.2

19.9

12.9

     

Boombhi, 2017

148

30.2

28.6

6.4

11.9

8.7

4

  

Damasceno, 2012

1006

45.4

18.8

7.7

14.3

 

6.8

1.3

 

Dokainish, 2017

1294

35

14.2

20

11

   

0.1

Kingery, 2017

588

42.8

19.3

6.2

16.6

7.6

   

Kwan, 2013

192

8

54

 

25

 

1.4

0.7

5

Makubi, 2014

427

45

22.4

9

12

    

Massoure, 2013

45

13

7

62

     

Mwita, 2017

193

40.4

19.6

5.7

9.3

 

6.2

  

Nkoke, 2017

529

43.2

17.6

9.6

11.7

8.8

3.8

 

2.1

Ogah, 2013

452

78.5

7.5

0.4

2.4

4.4

3.3

0.9

0.4

Ojji, 2013

1515

60.6

12

0.4

9.4

    

Onwuchekwa, 2009

423

56.3

7.3

0.2

4.3

2.1

   

Pio, 2014

297

43.1

5.9

19.2

11.8

2.7

1.7

 

2.7

Stewart, 2008

844

33

28

9

8

27

   
  1. HF heart failure
  2. aThe majority of this group consists of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and HIV-related cardiomyopathy were mentioned in several studies, while thyrotoxicosis, alcohol and diabetes were mentioned incidentally as causes for dilated cardiomyopathy