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Table 6 Summary of test accuracy findings in ocular ultrasound

From: Point-of-care ultrasound in primary care: a systematic review of generalist performed point-of-care ultrasound in unselected populations

TestAuthor Op.YearCountry (no. of studies in MA)Train.nPrev (%)AgeCriterion standardSn. in % (95% CI)Sp. in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
Retinal detachmentGottlieb et al. [168]EP2019MA (5)b0.52 h.455a12384660Orbital CT (1) or ophthalmology evaluation (6)93.9 (78.798.5)92.4 (85.696.1)12.4a0.0660a
Jacobsen et al. [169]EP2016USA0.5 h.1093149Ophthalmology evaluation91 (76–98)96 (89–99)23a0.094a
Lahham et al. [170]EP2019USA1 h.2252151Ophthalmology evaluation96.9 (80.6–99.6)88.1 (81.8–92.4)8.14a0.0352a
Ojaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.351834Ophthalmology evaluation88.9 (70.8–97.6)100.0 (98.9–100.0)0.11 (0.038–0.32)
Vitreous haemorrhageLahham et al. [170]EP2019USA1 h.2252451Ophthalmology evaluation81.9 (63.0–92.4)82.3 (75.4–87.5)4.63a0.220
Ojaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.3471334Ophthalmology evaluation97.8 (88.2–99.9)98.7 (96.7–99.6)74.8 (28.2–198.0)0.023 (0.032–0.16)
Vitreous detachmentLahham et al. [170]EP2019USA1 h.2251551Ophthalmology evaluation42.5 (24.7–62.4)96.0 (91.2–98.2)10.6a0.599a
Lens dislocationOjaghi Haghighi et al. [172]EP2014IranNR1301035Orbital CT84.6 (53.7–97.3)98.3 (93.3–99.7)49.5 (12.3–199.4)0.15 (0.04–0.56)
Ojaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.348934Orbital CT96.8 (83.3–99.9)99.4 (97.8–99.9)154.8 (38.8–617.0)0.032 (0.005–0.22)
3469Ophthalmology evaluation96.6 (82.2–99.9)98.8 (96.9–99.7)77.7 (29.3–206.0)0.035 (0.0051–0.24)
Globe foreign bodyOjaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.350534Orbital CT100.0 (79.4–100.0)99.7 (98.3–100.0)335.0 (47.3–2,371.0)0
Globe rupture (except clinically obvious)Ojaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.350134Orbital CT100.0 (39.7–100.0)99.7 (98.4–100.0)347.0 (49.0–2,456.0)0
Retrobulbar haematomaOjaghihaghighi et al. [171]EP2019Iran16 h.350934Orbital CT95.7 (78.1–99.9)99.7 (98.3–100.0)313.7 (44.2–2225.0)0.044 (0.0064–0.30)
  1. MA, meta-analysis (shown in italics with number of studies in brackets); Op., operators; Train., time spent in didactic intervention; h., hours; n, size of population; Prev., prevalence; Age, median- or mean age; Sn., sensitivity; Sp., specificity; CI, confidence interval; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; EP, emergency physician; NR, not reported; CT, computed tomography
  2. aCalculated by the authors from available data
  3. bEP sub-group analyzed separately