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Table 5 Summary of test accuracy findings in abdominal ultrasound

From: Point-of-care ultrasound in primary care: a systematic review of generalist performed point-of-care ultrasound in unselected populations

TestAuthor Op.YearCountry (no. of studies in MA)Train.nPrev (%)AgeCriterion standardSn. in % (95% CI)Sp. in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
Hydronephrosis/nephrolithiasisWong et al. [113]EP2018MA (9)NR17733584NRCT, visualisation of stone or surgical findings70.2 (67.173.2)75.4 (72.578.2)2.850.39
Javaudin et al. [114]EP2017France16 h.503847Radiologist US100 (82–100)71 (52–86)3.4 (2.0–6.0)0
Pediatric hydronephrosis in UTIGuedj et al. [115]EP2015France2 h.38259 m.Radiologist US76.5 (58.1–94.6)97.2 (95.2–99.2)27.30.25
Scrotal pathologyBlaivas et al. [118]EP2001USANR365845Radiologist colour doppler US95 (78–99)94 (72–99)16a0.053a
CholelithiasisEsquerrà et al. [121]GP2012Spain212 h.11556NRRadiologist US88.9 (83.2–94.6)100 (NR)a0.111
Lindgaard and Risgaard [93]GP2017Denmark2 d.6242NRRadiologist US92 (75–99)a92 (78–98)a11a (3.7–33)a0.08a (0.02–0.32)a
Scruggs et al. [125]EP2008USA57560NRRadiologist US88 (84–91)87 (82–91)6.8a0.13a
Ross et al. [124]EP2011MA (8)NR7104680NRRadiologist US, CT, MRI or surgical findings89.8 (86.492.5)88 (83.791.4)7.5 (NR)0.12 (NR)
Hilsden et al. [126]EP2018CanadaCert.28316NRNeed for cholecystectomy55 (40–70)92 (88–95)5.6a0.49a
Cholelithiasis OR CholecystitisSchlager et al. [122]EP1994CanadaNR6554NRRadiologist US or surgical findings86 (70a–95a)97 (83–100)a26a (4–177)a0.15a (0.07–0.33)a
CholecystitisRosen et al. [127]EP2001USANR1934649Clinical follow-up92 (73–100)78 (61–93)4.2a0.36a
Summers et al. [128]EP2010USANR1131436Surgical reports or clinical follow-up87 (66–97)82 (74–88)4.7 (3.2–6.9)0.16 (0.06–0.46)
Shekarchi et al. [129]EP2018Iran4 h.3421454Radiologist US89.58 (76.55–96.10)96.59 (93.63–98.29)4.30 (2.42–7.62)0.017 (0.007–0.041)
Tourghabe et al. [130]EP2018IranNR5110042Surgical and pathology findings37.84 (22.94–55.2)100.0 (73.24–100.0)0.62 (0.48–0.80)
Appendicitis (pediatric)Benabbas et al. [134]EP2017MA (4)4613154912Final pathology86 (7990)91 (8794)9.24 (6.4213.28)0.17 (0.090.30)
Nicole et al. [135]EP2018Canada2 d.1214410Pathology or clinical follow-up53 (40–66)82 (71–89)2.94a0.57a
Appendicitis (all ages)Lee and Yun [136]EP2019MA (17)238542a637Surgical or pathological findings84 (7292)91 (8595)7.0 (3.215.3)0.22 (0.120.42)
Appendicitis (adults)Fields et al. [137]EP2017MA (11)b1621NRNRCT, surgery, MRI or autopsy80 (7683)92 (9094)10.2 (8.212.7)0.22 (0.190.26)
Shahbazipar et al. [138]EP2018Iran8 h.1213834Pathology or clinical follow-up63 (48–77)99 (93–100)63a0.37a
Sharif et al. [139]EP2018CanadaNR9020NRPathology, laparoscopy, CT and/or radiologist US69.2 (48.1–84.9)90.6 (80.0–96.1)7.4 (3.3–16.5)0.3 (0.2–0.6)
Corson-Knowles and Russell [140]EP2018USA20 m763727aPathology results or clinical follow-up42.8 (25.0–62.5)97.9 (87.5–99.8)20.6 (2.8–149.9)0.58 (0.42–0.80)
Intussusception (pediatric)Riera et al. [141]EP2012USA1 h.821624 m.Radiologist US85 (54–97)97 (89–99)29 (7.3–117)0.16 (0.04–0.57)
Lam et al. [142]EP2014USA1 h.442331Radiologist study100 (66–100)97 (82–100)32 (4.65–220)0
Small bowel obstructionUnlüer et al. [146]EP201Turkey6 h.1744956Surgical findings, CT or clinical follow-up97.7 (94.5–100)92.7 (87.0–98.3)13.4 (6.2–28.9)0.025a
Jang et al. [147]EP2011USA10 m.7643NRAbdominal CT91 (75–98)84 (69–93)5.6 (2.8–11.1)0.1 (0.04–0.3)
Frasure et al. [148]EP2018USANR476863Abdominal CT93.8 (79.2–99.2)93.3 (68.1–99.8)14.1 (2.11–93.6)0.07 (0.02–0.26)
Becker et al. [145]EP2019USA30 m.2174355Abdominal CT88 (80–94)54 (45–63)1.92 (1.56–2.35)0.22 (0.12–0.39)
AscitesLindgaard and Riisgaard [93]GP2017Denmark2 d.349NRRadiologist US100 (29–100)a100 (89–100)a0
Constipation in childrenDoniger et al. [149]EP2018USA1.5 h.506410 ± 4Rome III questionnaire86 (67–95)71 (53–85)3.0a0.20a
  1. MA, meta-analysis (shown in italics with number of studies in brackets); Op., operators; Train., time spent in didactic intervention; m., minutes; h., hours; d., days; n, size of population; Prev., prevalence; Age, median- or mean age; Sn., sensitivity; Sp., specificity; CI, confidence interval; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; GP, general practitioner; EP, emergency physician; NR, not reported; CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; US, ultrasound
  2. aCalculated by the authors from available data
  3. bEP sub-group analyzed separately