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Table 4 Summary of test accuracy findings in vascular ultrasound

From: Point-of-care ultrasound in primary care: a systematic review of generalist performed point-of-care ultrasound in unselected populations

TestAuthor Op.YearCountry (no. of studies in MA)Train.nPrev (%)AgeCriterion standardSn. in % (95% CI)Sp. in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
AAA (> 3 cm)—screening in general practiceBravo-Merino et al. [90]GP2019SpainNR7617b/4.6c70Vascular surgical services ultrasound100b/93.3 (75.4–99.9)c100b/98.5 (94.3–100)cb/62.2c0b/0.07c
Blois et al. [88]GP2012CanadaNR454.473Radiologist100 (15.8–100)a100 (91.8–100)aa0a
Bailey et al. [89]GP2001USA2 h.795.1NRRadiologist100 (39.8–100)a100 (95.2–100)aa0a
AAA on clinical indication (cm)
 > 3Rubano et al. [94]EP2013MA (7)NR65523> 50CT, MRI, radiologist US, aortography, surgical findings, autopsy99 (96100)98 (9799)NR (10.8)NR (00.025)
 > 5Lindgaard and Risgaard [93]GP2017Denmark2 d.293NRRadiologist US100 (2.5–100)a100 (87.7–100)aa0a
DVT Mixed techniques (2-point, 3-point and duplex US)Pomero et al. [97]EP2013MA (16)10 m.6 h.237923NRColour-flow duplex US by radiology or angiography96.1 (90.698.5)96.8 (94.698.1)30.0 (17.252.2)0.04 (0.020.10)
DVT 2-point compression (CFV and PV)Lee et al. [98]EP2019MA (9)NR133720a4973Radiologist US91 (6898)98 (9699)46a0.09a
Torres-Macho et al. [99]EP2012Spania10 h.7635NRRadiologist US92 (82–100)98 (94–100)46a0.08a
Mumoli et al. [96]GP2017Italy50 h.11071864Vascular ultrasound physician experts90.0 (88.2–91.8)97.1 (96.2–98.1)31.0a0.10a
Nygren et al. [101]EP2018Sweden45 m.651770Radiologist US100 (71.5–100)90.7 (79.7–96.9)10.8 (4.69–24.9)0
DVT 3-point compression (CFV, SFV and PV)Lee et al. [98]EP2019MA (8)NR103529a4768Radiologist US and/or contrast venography90 (8395)95 (8399)18a0.11a
Crowhurst and Dunn [100]EP2013Australia2 h1781457Radiologist duplex US77.8 (54.8–91.0)91.4 (84.9–95.3)9.04a0.24a
  1. MA, meta-analysis (shown in italics with number of studies in brackets); Op., operators; Train., time spent in didactic intervention; m., minutes; h., hours; d., days; x, examinations; n, size of population; Prev., prevalence; Age, median- or mean age; Sn., sensitivity; Sp., specificity; CI, confidence interval; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; GP, general practitioner; EP, emergency physician; NR, not reported; AAA, abdominal aortic aneurysm; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; CFV, common femoral vein; PV, popliteal vein; SFV, superficial femoral vein; CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; US, ultrasound
  2. aOnly including the 20% that had the criterion standard applied
  3. bBy posterior probability distribution
  4. cCalculated by the authors from available data