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Table 3 Summary of test accuracy findings in lung ultrasound

From: Point-of-care ultrasound in primary care: a systematic review of generalist performed point-of-care ultrasound in unselected populations

TestAuthor Op.YearCountry (no. of studies in MA)Train.nPrev (%)AgeCriterion standardSn. in % (95% CI)Sp. in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
Diffuse interstitial syndrome in heart failureMartindale et al. [55]EP2016MA (8)NR191448NRFinal diagnosis85.3 (82.887.5)92.7 (90.994.3)7.4 (4.212.8)0.16 (0.050.51)
McGivery et al. [56]EP2018MA (5)cNR1387NRNRFinal diagnosis88.6 (79.694.0)83.2 (63.293.5)5.27a0.14a
Lian et al. [57]EPd2018MA (15)NR3309NRNRFinal diagnosis85 (8487)91 (8992)8.94 (5.6414.18)0.14 (0.080.26)
Koh et al. [75]EP2018Singapore20 h.2313668Final diagnosis71.4 (60.5–80.8)80.9 (72.5–87.6)3.73 (2.50–5.57)0.35 (0.25–0.50)
Maw et al. [58]EPd2019MA (6)NR18272062NRFinal diagnosis or echoc./BNP88 (7595)90 (8892)8.63 (6.9310.74)0.14 (0.060.29)
Staub et al. [59]EPd2019MA (14)NR27782488NRFinal diagnosisNR (7590)bNR (8090)bNRNR
Pivetta et al. [60]EP2019Italy40 x5184379Final diagnosis93.5 (87.7–97.2)95.5 (90.5–98.3)20.9 (9.54–45.7)0.07 (0.03–0.13)
Bekgoz et al. [76]EP2019Turkey2 h.3832266Final diagnosis87 (79–93)97 (94–98)29a0.13a
Pneumonia (adults)Ye et al. [63]EP2015MA (5)NR742NRFinal diagnosis95 (9397)90 (8694)9.5a0.056a
Orso et al. [62]EP2018MA (17)NR5108NR67Final diagnosis or CXR and/or CCT92 (8796)93 (8697)13a0,086a
Staub et al. [59]EPd2019MA (14)NR18963085NRFinal diagnosis or CXR and/or CCTNR (8595)bNR (7590)bNRNR
Amatya et al. [64]EP2018Nepal1 h.627159CCT91 (78–97)a61 (36–83)a2.34 (1.30–4.20)a0.15 (0.05–0.41)a
Koh et al. [75]EP2018Singapore20 h.2312168Final diagnosis65.3 (50.4–78.3)82.0 (74.9–87.8)3.63 (2.44–5.40)0.42 (0.29–0.63)
Bekgoz et al. [76]EP2019Turkey2 h.3832466Final diagnosis82 (78–89)98 (97–99)41a0.18a
Pneumonia (children)Copetti and Cattarossi [65]EP2008ItalyNR79765CXR, CT or final diagnosis100a100aa0a
Shah et al. [66]EP2013USA1 h.200183CXR86 (71–94)89 (83–93)7.8 (5.0–12.4)0.2 (0.1–0.4)
PneumothoraxEbrahimi et al. [70]EP2014MA (14)c1803NRNRCCT88 (8294)99 (98100)88a0.12a
Staub et al. [71]EPd2018MA (13)237814NRCXR, CCT or chest tube (with rush of air)81 (7188)98 (9799)67.9 (26.3148)0.18 (0.110.29)
Riccardi et al. [72]EP2019Italy190959CXR and/or CCT94100a0.06a
Bekgoz et al. [76]EP2019Turkey2 h.383266Final diagnosis85100a0.15a
COPD/AsthmaKoh et al. [75]EP2018Singapore20 h.2312768Final diagnosis64.5 (51.3–76.3)89.8 (83.4–94.3)6.31 (3.72–10.72)0.40 (0.28–0.56)
Bekgoz et al. [76]EP2019Turkey2 h.3832866Final diagnosis96 (90–97)75 (70–80)3.8a0.05a
  1. MA, meta-analysis (shown in italics with number of studies in brackets); Op., operators; Train., time spent in didactic intervention; h., hours; x, number of examinations; n, size of population; Prev., prevalence; Age, median or mean age in years; Sn., sensitivity; Sp., specificity; CI, confidence interval; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR− negative likelihood ratio; EP, emergency physician; NR, not reported; echoc., echocardiography; BNP, brain-type natriuretic peptide; CXR, chest X-ray; CCT, chest computed tomography
  2. aCalculated by the authors
  3. bThe approximate overall 95% confidence interval based on the area under the curve
  4. cEP sub-group analyzed separately
  5. dThe majority of studies included involved EPs