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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Diagnostic value of transcranial ultrasonography for selecting subjects with large vessel occlusion: a systematic review

Domain Inclusion Exclusion
Study type Comparative observational studies Case reports
Prospective observational studies Selected case series
Cohort studies Literature review
Unselected case series Conference proceedings
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Participants Human Non-human subjects
Adults Exclusively paediatric patients
Mixed paediatric and adult populations (where paediatric and adult groups are not possible to identify separately)
Patients with acute stroke—ischaemic (including patients with a transient ischaemic attack) or haemorrhagic Patients with non-stroke conditions, such as sickle cell disease, arteriovenous malformation, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral tumour
Patients with acute spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage  
Setting Any  
Procedure Transcranial ultrasonography (grey-scale/Doppler/colour-coded sonography) with/without contrast (microbubble) enhancement if the outcomes are reported separately Transcranial ultrasonography (grey-scale/Doppler/colour-coded sonography) with contrast (microbubble) enhancement as sole ultrasound method, or if the outcomes are not reported separately
A reference standard diagnostic tool, such as conventional imaging (CT, MRI), cerebral angiography (computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, digital subtraction angiography) No reference test employed
Maximal time interval between the onset of symptoms and index and reference tests: 72 h Unknown or more than 72 h’ time interval between the symptoms onset and index and/or reference tests
Maximal time interval between the index and reference tests: 24 h Unknown or more than 24 h’ time interval between the index and reference tests
Aims/outcomes Detection of signs of acute cerebral ischaemia, acute intracranial haemorrhage, midline shift in space-occupying stroke as measured by both transcranial ultrasonography as index test and reference test Detection of signs of vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage