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Table 1 POCUS protocol

From: Impact of an ultrasound-driven diagnostic protocol at early intensive-care stay: a randomized-controlled trial

Type of ultrasound Instruments questions Theoretic considerations
Optical behavior Diameter optic nerve: right eye (mm); left eye (mm) A diameter > 5.7 is a noninvasive indication of intracranial hypertension
Neck anatomy Visualization of great vessels (jugular vein, carotid artery): normal or abnormal Detection of patency (thrombosis) and anatomical variants or abnormalities
Pulmonary Lung ultrasound score, 0–36 points Score increases as pulmonary water increases; indicates pulmonary edema
Pleural Presence of pleural occupation and estimation of pleural effusion (mL) Confirmation of diagnosis, volume evaluation and follow-up
Echocardiography overall function Estimation of left-ventricular systolic function by LVEF (%) and right-ventricular systolic function by TAPSE (mm) LVEF > 50% and TAPSE > 15 mm is considered normal
Prediction of volume responsiveness Distensibility index of inferior vena cava (%) An index > 12% indicates response to intravenous fluid challenges
Estimation of CO CO (L/min) estimated by left ventricular outflow tract by velocity time integral and diameter Normal values, 4–6 L/min
Abdominal screening FAST protocol for presence or absence of intraperitoneal free fluid Presence of free fluid is abnormal
Biliary Presence of lithiasis or dilated biliary tract Biliary tract pathology may be an incidental finding or the cause of critical illness
Renal Presence of urinary lithiasis or dilated urinary tract Urinary tract pathology may be an incidental finding or the cause of critical illness
Ultrasound-guided invasive procedures Venous or arterial access, pleural or abdominal drainage Ultrasound-guided invasive procedures are more secure, with fewer adverse effects
  1. CO cardiac output, FAST focused assessment with sonography in trauma, IH intracranial hypertension, LVEF left-ventricular ejection fraction, POCUS point-of-care ultrasound, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion