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Table 4 Intra- and inter-observer variability

From: Basic critical care echocardiography training of intensivists allows reproducible and reliable measurements of cardiac output

  CIC 95% CI p value Fleiss index
Intra-observer
 LVOTd
  Observer 1 0.7 0.47–0.85 < 0.001 Good
  Observer 2 0.8 0.65–0.91 < 0.001 Excellent
  Observer 3 0.9 0.71–0.94 < 0.001 Excellent
 VTI
  Observer 1 0.9 0.85–0.97 < 0.001 Excellent
  Observer 2 0.9 0.79–0.95 < 0.001 Excellent
  Observer 3 0.9 0.73–0.94 < 0.001 Excellent
Inter-observer
 CO 0.6 0.31–0.82 < 0.001 Good
  1. CIC: coefficient of intraclass correlation; CI: confidence interval; LVOTd: left-ventricular outflow tract diameter; VTI: velocity time integral; CO: cardiac output