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TableĀ 1 Indications and contraindications to pleural drainage positioning

From: An easier and safe affair, pleural drainage with ultrasound in critical patient: a technical note

Indications Contraindications (relative)
Recurrent malignant pleural effusion
Symptomatic patients caused by the effusions
Massive transudative or exsudative pleural effusion
Parapneumonic effusions
Weaning from mechanical ventilation
Coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia
Small to medium size pleural effusions in cardiac patients with more than moderate left ventricular dysfunction
Pulmonary bullae
Pulmonary, pleural or thoracic adhesions
Loculated pleural effusion or empyema
Recurrent pleural infections
Skin infection over the chest tube insertion site