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Table 2 Clinical, echocardiographic and respiratory ultrasound variables

From: The impact of heart, lung and diaphragmatic ultrasound on prediction of failed extubation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: a prospective observational pilot study

Variable Failed extubation (n = 11) Successful extubation (n = 42) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value
RSBI (breath/min/l) median (IQR) 48.0 (35.1–72.0) 33.5 (25.6–55.4) 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.03
BNP (pmole/l) median (IQR) 372 (152–1620) 233 (95–475) 1.0 (0.99–1.00) 0.72
Echocardiographic variables
 LVEF (%) median (IQR) 50 (45–55) 65 (53–65) 0.96 (0.91–1.0) 0.1
 E median (IQR) 0.87 (0.68–1.04) 0.83 (0.68–0.99) 5.43 (0.35–85.2) 0.22
 E/A median (IQR) 1.20 (0.60–1.64) 1.13 (0.85–1.36) 0.99 (0.38–2.59) 0.99
 EDT median (IQR) 175 (125–259) 180 (155–217) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.87
 E′ median (IQR) 0.07 (0.05–0.11) 0.10 (0.08–0.12) 0.00 (0.00–1.36) 0.052
 E/E′ median (IQR) 10.9 (8.7–18.0) 7.7 (6.4–10.6) 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 0.01
 LAA median (IQR) 25.0 (19.3–32.0) 20.0 (18.0–23.7) 1.14 (1.02–1.28) 0.02
 IAS fixed curvature n (%) 7 (72.7) 8 (17.1) 12.95 (2.73–61.41) 0.001
Lung ultrasound
 Aeration score of left and right anterior and lateral region (upper and lower zones) median (IQR) 17 (8–20) 11 (8–13) 1.41 (1.01–1.82) 0.007
 Aeration score of left and right lungs total median (IQR) 22 (13–28) 18 (13–21) 1.12 (0.99–1.27) 0.06
Diaphragmatic dysfunction n (%)
 No diaphragmatic dysfunction 5 (45.5) 24 (57.1)   0.53
 Hemidiaphragm dysfunction 4 (36.4) 15 (35.7) 1.28 (0.29–5.53) 0.26
 Diaphragm dysfunction 2 (18.2) 3 (7.1) 3.2 (0.41–24.41) 0.49
  1. Normal values of the parameters listed in the table are as follows: RSBI: < 105, BNP < 29 pmol/l, LVEF < 50%, E 73 ± 19 cm/s, A 69 ± 17 cm/s, E/A 1.20 ± 0.20, DT 192 ± 40 ms, E′ 12 ± 4 cm/s, E/E′ 10 ± 2, hemidiaphragm excursion ≥ 1.0 cm
  2. IAS: interatrial septum; IQR: interquartile range; LAA: left atrial area; LVE/E: left ventricular early diastolic trans-mitral flow velocity; E wave: early diastolic mitral annulus velocity E′ ratio; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; OR: odds ratio, RSBI: rapid shallow breathing index