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Table 3 Description of lung ultrasound findings

From: Point-of-care lung ultrasound for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: notes from the field

Findings Image Description Interpretation
A-lines Horizontal lines separated from the pleural line by regular intervals that are equal to the distance between skin and pleural line Pleural line remains intact Normal
B-lines Vertical, hyperechoic reverberation artifacts originating from the pleural line and extending throughout the field of view Pleural line remains intact Up to 2 B-lines per view are normal, otherwise fluid in the interstitial space is suspected
Pleural effusion Anechoic areas that separate lung tissue from pleura and diaphragm, may be simple “black” fluid or contain complex septations Separation of visceral and parietal pleura by fluid Collection of pleural transudate or exudate
Pneumothorax Absence of dynamic pleural sliding, a lung point represents the transition between loss of pleural sliding and the return of pleural sliding (the border of the pneumothorax) Separation of visceral and parietal pleura by air Air in the pleural space
Subpleuric consolidation Small hypoechoic areas (< 2 cm) disrupt the visceral pleura Parietal pleura acquires a “ragged” or “shredded” appearance Small consolidations are present on the visceral pleura itself
Consolidation with linear bronchogram Larger irregular hypoechoic areas containing linear hyperechoic air bronchograms (bright areas with linear arrangement casting a vertical shadow artifact) Alveolar parenchymal involvement, with air trapped in the obstructed airways
Consolidation with “cystic bronchogram” Larger irregular hypoechoic areas disrupting the visceral pleura with small disseminated hyperechoic areas within consolidated lung (without marked shadow artifacts) Alveolar parenchymal involvement, possible cystic changes as explanation for the echogenic areas