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Table 2 Diagnostic performances of the lung ultrasound findings

From: Point-of-care lung ultrasound for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: notes from the field

Lung ultrasound sign PJP+
n (%)
PJP−
n (%)
p-value Se
(95% CI)
Sp
(95% CI)
PPV
(95% CI)
NPV
(95% CI)
LR+
(95% CI)
LR−
(95% CI)
B-lines (> 2 per view) no B-lines in the scan 14 (100%) 6
(60%)
0.0198 100%
(76.84–100)
45.45%
(16.75–76.62)
70%
(57.64–80.01)
100%
1.83
(1.07–3.14)
0.00
Pleural effusion 0
(0%)a
5
(50%)
0.0059 0.00%
(0.00–23.16)
50.00%
(18.71–81.29)
0.00%
26.32%
(16.12–39.90)
0.00
2.00
(1.08–3.27)
Pneumothorax 4
(28.5%)
1
(10%)
0.3577 40.00%
(12.16–73.76)
90.00%
(55.50–99.75)
80.00%
(34.93–96.75)
60.00%
(46.48–72.15)
4.00
(0.54–29.81)
0.67
(0.39–1.15)
Subpleural consolidation 14 (100%) 4
(40%)
0.0016 100%
(76.84–100)
60.00%
(16.24–87.84)
77.78%
(62.10–88.20)
100%
2.50
(1.17–5.34)
0.00
Lung consolidation, any lung consolidations with “cystic” changes at the pulmonary basis 8
(57.1%)
5
(50%)
1.0000 57.14%
(28.86–82.34)
50.00%
(18.71–81.29)
61.54%
(42.60–77.52)
45.45%
(25.95–66.46)
1.14
(0.53–2.46)
0.86
(0.36–2.04)
Lung consolidation with air bronchogram 0
(0%)
4
(40%)
0.0198 0.00%
(0.00–23.16)
60.00%
(26.24–87.84)
0.00%
30.00%
(20.53–41.55)
0.00
1.67
(1.00–2.76)
Lung consolidation with cystic pattern 8
(57.1%)
0
(0%)
0.0019 57.14%
(28.86–82.34)
100%
(69.15–100)
100%
62.50
(47.65–75.32)
0.43
0.23–0.78
  1. PJP, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; Se, sensitivity; Sp, specificity; PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. aOne patient developed bilateral pleural effusion later during the stay in the Intensive Care Unit