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Table 2 Diagnostic performances of the lung ultrasound findings

From: Point-of-care lung ultrasound for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: notes from the field

Lung ultrasound sign PJP+ n (%) PJP− n (%) p-value Se (95% CI) Sp (95% CI) PPV (95% CI) NPV (95% CI) LR+ (95% CI) LR− (95% CI)
B-lines (> 2 per view) no B-lines in the scan 14 (100%) 6 (60%) 0.0198 100% (76.84–100) 45.45% (16.75–76.62) 70% (57.64–80.01) 100% – 1.83 (1.07–3.14) 0.00 –
Pleural effusion 0 (0%)a 5 (50%) 0.0059 0.00% (0.00–23.16) 50.00% (18.71–81.29) 0.00% – 26.32% (16.12–39.90) 0.00 – 2.00 (1.08–3.27)
Pneumothorax 4 (28.5%) 1 (10%) 0.3577 40.00% (12.16–73.76) 90.00% (55.50–99.75) 80.00% (34.93–96.75) 60.00% (46.48–72.15) 4.00 (0.54–29.81) 0.67 (0.39–1.15)
Subpleural consolidation 14 (100%) 4 (40%) 0.0016 100% (76.84–100) 60.00% (16.24–87.84) 77.78% (62.10–88.20) 100% – 2.50 (1.17–5.34) 0.00 –
Lung consolidation, any lung consolidations with “cystic” changes at the pulmonary basis 8 (57.1%) 5 (50%) 1.0000 57.14% (28.86–82.34) 50.00% (18.71–81.29) 61.54% (42.60–77.52) 45.45% (25.95–66.46) 1.14 (0.53–2.46) 0.86 (0.36–2.04)
Lung consolidation with air bronchogram 0 (0%) 4 (40%) 0.0198 0.00% (0.00–23.16) 60.00% (26.24–87.84) 0.00% – 30.00% (20.53–41.55) 0.00 – 1.67 (1.00–2.76)
Lung consolidation with cystic pattern 8 (57.1%) 0 (0%) 0.0019 57.14% (28.86–82.34) 100% (69.15–100) 100% – 62.50 (47.65–75.32) 0.43 0.23–0.78
  1. PJP, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; Se, sensitivity; Sp, specificity; PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. aOne patient developed bilateral pleural effusion later during the stay in the Intensive Care Unit