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Table 2 Chest imaging and diagnostic criteria of selected studies

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis for the use of ultrasound versus radiology in diagnosing of pneumonia

Study Imaging Pneumonia diagnosis Patient type Inclusion criteria Ultrasound operator Diagnostic criteria Blinding
Benci et al. [27] CXR + Chest CT if CXR/LUS discordance Clinical diagnosis or imaging Hospitalized Pneumonia symptoms Experienced physicians Consolidation Yes
Lichtenstein et al. [19] Chest CT Imaging only Critically ill Acute respiratory distress syndrome Experienced physicians Consolidation Yes
Lichtenstein et al. [28] Chest CT Imaging only Critically ill Chest pain or severe thoracic diseases Two ED physician sonographers Consolidation Yes
Lichtenstein et al. [29] CXR + Chest CT if possible Clinical diagnosis or imaging Critically ill Acute respiratory failure Experienced physicians Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Parlamento et al. [30] CXR + Chest CT if CXR/LUS discordance Imaging only Presented to ED CAP symptoms Experienced physicians Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Cortellaro et al. [31] CXR + Chest CT if possible Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED CAP symptoms Experienced physicians Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Xirouchaki et al. [32] Chest CT scan Imaging only Critically ill Mechanically ventilated patients scheduled for chest CT scan Single physician (Expertise not mentioned) Consolidation Yes
Reissig et al. [33] CXR + chest CT if CXR/LUS discordance Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED or hospitalized CAP symptoms Experienced physicians Consolidation Yes
Testa et al. [34] CXR + chest CT if possible/indicated Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED Suspected H1N1 infection Experienced physicians Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Unluer et al. [24] CXR + chest CT if possible/indicated Imaging only Presented to ED CAP symptoms Trained emergency physicians Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Nafae et al. [37] Chest CT scan Imaging only Hospitalized Pneumonia symptoms Experienced physicians Consolidation No
Esposito et al. [39] CR Imaging only Critically ill CAP symptoms Resident with limited experience Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Liu et al. [38] CT scan Imaging only Presented to ED CAP symptoms Trained emergency physicians Consolidation Yes
Copetti et al. [36] Electrocardiogram, Chest X-ray, and Color-Doppler echocardiography. Imaging only Critically ill acute pulmonary edema NA Alveolar and interstitial NA
Iuri [23] Chest radiographs Imaging only admitted to the pediatric emergency ward CAP symptoms Two radiologists Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Shah [35] Chest radiographs Imaging only patients had a routine clinical examination Pneumonia symptoms Trained physicians Consolidation Yes
Dien [25] Chest radiographs Imaging only Critically ill Pneumonia symptoms One radiologist Consolidation NA
Caiulo [26] Chest radiographs Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED Pneumonia symptoms One radiologist Alveolar and interstitial Yes
Nazerian [40] Chest CT scan Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED Any respiratory complaint Trained emergency physicians Consolidation Yes
Bourcier [41] Chest CT scan Clinical diagnosis or imaging Presented to ED CAP pneumonia  Trained emergency physicians Alveolar-interstitial syndrome  NA