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Table 3 Echocardiographic indices of volume responsiveness

From: Echocardiography in the sepsis syndromes

Vpeak 100 (Vpeakmax − Vpeakmin)/(Vpeakmax + Vpeakmin)/2 [≥12%] [36]
IVC distensibility index 100 (IVCend-insp − IVCend-exp)/IVCend-insp [≥18%] [37]
SVC collapsibility index 100 [(SVCend-exp − SVCend-insp)/SVCend-exp] [≥36%] [38]
Response to PLR test (SViPLR − SVibasal)/SVibasal [≥12.5%] [38]
  1. Volume responsiveness can be accurately detected in passive mechanically ventilated and sinus rhythm patients through assessment of IVC and SVC diameter respiratory variations, and through LV ejection respiratory variations. In spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated but actively breathing patients, and/or non-sinus rhythm patients, these indices are inaccurate, and a passive leg-raising test is required. Cutoff values for volume responsiveness of each index are indicated in square brackets
  2. Vpeak, peak velocity of transaortic flow; ∆Vpeak, aortic flow respiratory variation index; Vpeakmax, maximum Vpeak velocity; Vpeakmin minimum Vpeak velocity; IVC, inferior vena cava; IVCend-insp, IVC diameter at end inspiration; IVCend-exp, IVC diameter at end expiration; SVC, superior vena cava; SVCend-exp, SVC diameter at end expiration; SVCend-insp, SVC diameter at end inspiration; PLR, passive leg raising; SVibasal, stroke volume index at 45° trunk elevation; SViPLR, stroke volume index during PLR (45° leg raising)